Paper on the relationship between ecosystem services and the abandonment of agricultural land in Japan is out 🙂 -> https://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/10/10/1031
Hotspots of Agricultural Ecosystem Services and Farmland Biodiversity Overlap with Areas at Risk of Land Abandonment in Japan
Read here: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/10/10/1031
Agriculture provides a wide range of ecosystem services and has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation. In Japan, many of the resources associated with agroecosystems are threatened by farmland abandonment. Identifying where and to what extent agricultural ecosystem services and farmland biodiversity are affected by farmland abandonment is essential for developing effective strategies to counter the potential loss of these services and the biological communities that support them. Our study aimed to examine how a set of indicators for ecosystem services and biodiversity linked to agroecosystems (proportions of land dedicated to rice production and other agricultural production, proportion of agricultural land on slopes potentially providing landscape aesthetics, proportion of villages promoting rural tourism, and densities of forest edges and irrigation ponds in agricultural land) are distributed at the municipal level across the Japanese Archipelago, and to analyze their spatial patterns in relation to the distribution of farmland abandonment. It was hypothesized that hotspots of agricultural ecosystem services and farmland biodiversity occur in areas at risk of farmland abandonment owing to shared drivers. The cluster analysis identified four distinct ecosystem service bundle types, two of them representing areas specializing in agricultural production, while the other two provided high levels of cultural services and habitats for diverse biological communities. The latter two bundles were located in hilly and mountainous areas and accounted for 58% of rice production, 27% of other agricultural production, 77% of landscape aesthetics, 77% of rural tourism, 64% of forest edges, and 87% of irrigation ponds in Japan. In support of the hypothesis, farmland abandonment was pronounced in these areas, with 64% of recently abandoned fields located where 44% of agricultural land was found. This spatial overlap suggests that substantial losses of ecosystem services and biodiversity may occur if current patterns of farmland abandonment continue. In order to prevent large-scale losses of agricultural ecosystem services and farmland biodiversity, measures to counteract the ongoing abandonment trends should prioritize hilly and mountainous areas, and future studies should further evaluate the multiple functions of agricultural areas to improve policies that aim to ensure sustainable development of rural areas in Japan
The amount of carbon stored in deadwood is equivalent to about 8 per cent of the global forest carbon stocks. The decomposition of deadwood is largely governed by climate with decomposer groups—such as microorganisms and insects—contributing to variations in the decomposition rates. At the global scale, the contribution of insects to the decomposition of deadwood and carbon release remains poorly understood. Here we present a field experiment of wood decomposition across 55 forest sites and 6 continents. We find that the deadwood decomposition rates increase with temperature, and the strongest temperature effect is found at high precipitation levels. Precipitation affects the decomposition rates negatively at low temperatures and positively at high temperatures. As a net effect—including the direct consumption by insects and indirect effects through interactions with microorganisms—insects accelerate the decomposition in tropical forests (3.9% median mass loss per year). In temperate and boreal forests, we find weak positive and negative effects with a median mass loss of 0.9 per cent and −0.1 per cent per year, respectively. Furthermore, we apply the experimentally derived decomposition function to a global map of deadwood carbon synthesized from empirical and remote-sensing data, obtaining an estimate of 10.9 ± 3.2 petagram of carbon per year released from deadwood globally, with 93 per cent originating from tropical forests. Globally, the net effect of insects may account for 29 per cent of the carbon flux from deadwood, which suggests a functional importance of insects in the decomposition of deadwood and the carbon cycle.
The graduation ceremony for the class of 2020 was held today at the Korakuen Campus of Chuo University. Congratulations everybody!
(don't worry - we put the masks back on immediately after taking the photo)
Effects of projected climate change on the distribution of Mantis religiosa suggest expansion followed by contraction
Climate change influences the global and regional distribution of many species. For thermophilic insects, range expansions towards the north and to higher elevations are expected in the course of climatic warming across the Northern Hemisphere. The distribution of the European mantis (Mantis religiosa) has recently expanded from Mediterranean regions in France to Hesse in central Germany. This is interpreted as a response to rising mean temperatures, and further northward expansion is expected to occur with increasing climate warming. In this study, potential changes in the regional distribution across Hesse were modeled for Mantis religiosa using the present distribution and climate across Europe as the baseline. We estimated potential changes in the regional distribution for two time periods until 2080 based on two climate change scenarios. The results showed that the current range of M. religiosa in Hesse is smaller than expected based on its climatic niche, i.e., the distribution is not in equilibrium with the present climate. With climate warming the model predicts an expansion of the potential distribution for the period 2041–2060. For the period 2061–2080, our model predicts, however, a range contraction in spite of continued warming. This unexpected result warrants further investigation in order to elucidate whether the ongoing climate change may have negative consequences for thermophilic species such as M. religiosa.
Steger, J., Schneider, A., Brandl, R., and Hotes, S.: Effects of projected climate change on the distribution of Mantis religiosa suggest expansion followed by contraction, Web Ecol., 20, 107–115, https://doi.org/10.5194/we-20-107-2020, 2020.
Regeneration capacity and threats to mangrove areas on the southern coast of Oriental Mindoro, Philippines: Implications to mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation
aganas AFM, Hadsall AS, Pampolina NM, Hotes S, Magcale-Macandog DB. 2020. Regeneration capacity and threats to mangrove areas on the southern coast of Oriental Mindoro, Philippines: Implications to mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation. Biodiversitas 21: 3625-3636. Regeneration capacity is important as it determines the fate of an ecosystem. This study assessed six mangrove areas in the southern coast of Oriental Mindoro, Philippines to evaluate their regeneration capacity status. Four mangrove ecotypes were delineated namely seaward, middle, landward and riverine zones at each mangrove ecosystem, where dominant mangrove species were identified and selected for regeneration capacity study. Three subplots measuring 1 x 1 m2 were laid within the five 10 x 10 m2 survey plots established per zone. The juveniles were counted and categorized according to their height classes, using linear regeneration sampling method; where: RCI (≤40 cm) considered seedlings; RCII (41-150 cm) as saplings; and RCIII (151-≤300 cm) as small trees. Potential threats both anthropogenic and natural were determined through key informant interviews. Seven dominant species were identified across ecotypes in all mangrove sites, namely Avicennia marina, Avicennia rumphiana, Ceriops decandra, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba, and Xylocarpus granatum. RCI (seedlings) is the most abundant across mangrove sites irrespective of the dominant species. Fishpond operation within the mangrove stand is considered a major threat to the juveniles and most mangrove ecosystems. Therefore, protection and constant monitoring of these mangrove ecosystems are necessary to ensure regeneration success in the future.
Notwendigkeit eines Brückenschlags zwischen Wissenschaft und Praxis im Naturschutz - Chancen und Herausforderungen
Auflage: 1. Auflage
Für ein erfolgreiches Handeln im Naturschutz sind ein enger Austausch und eine Rückkopplung zwischen Wissenschaft sowie Akteurinnen und Akteuren der Praxis auf allen Ebenen notwendig. Viele Beispiele und Erfahrungen deuten jedoch darauf hin, dass dieser wechselseitige Austausch nicht optimal und bedarfsgerecht funktioniert. Aus Sicht der Autorinnen und Autoren besteht die Notwendigkeit für einen neuen "Brückenschlag" im Naturschutz, um die Übertragung gesicherter Forschungsergebnisse in die Praxis und umgekehrt die Vermittlung der Bedarfe aus der Praxis hin zur Wissenschaft zu optimieren. Ausgehend von einer Analyse der aktuellen Herausforderungen und Ursachen in diesem Kontext werden im vorliegenden Beitrag - differenziert nach den wichtigsten Akteursgruppen - verschiedene Lösungsansätze für einen Brückenschlag abgeleitet und zur Diskussion gestellt. Ergänzend finden sich vier Praxisbeispiele. Für eine Verbesserung der Situation muss die Naturschutzforschung vermehrt die Bedarfe der Praxis berücksichtigen und entsprechende Forschung muss auch von der "scientific community" anerkannt werden. Gleichzeitig soll die Diskussion dazu beitragen, dass die Praxis ihr Handeln stärker evidenzbasiert ausrichtet und noch aktiver die Kooperation mit der Wissenschaft sucht.